- B.S. (1952) Emory University, Atlanta
- M.D. (1955) Jefferson University, Philadelphia
After training at Jefferson University and the Naval Medical School (Bethesda), certified in clinical chemistry (1960) and clinical pathology (1961).
Associate Professor of Pathology and Director of Clinical Laboratories at University of Florida (Gainesville,1964-68).
Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Director of Clinical Laboratories at University of Connecticut (Farmington, 1968-97).
Since 1997, he is Research Professor of Pathology at University of Vermont (Burlington), and Visiting Scholar in Chemistry at Middlebury College (Middlebury).
Research is focused on the toxicity of metals. Author of 258 research papers, 87 reviews, and 18 books.
Served on editorial boards of 19 journals and has been editor-in-chief of the Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science since 2001.
Honors include the Ames Award (1978) for clinical chemistry, and Clinical Scientist of the Year Award (1979).
Served on boards of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Academy of Sciences, National Institutes of Health, United States Veterans Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, International Commission on Occupational Health, and World Health Organization.
Officer of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences, American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Association of Clinical Scientists, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, and Society of Toxicology.
- IUPAC Achievement Award (1992) for research on nickel toxicology.
- IUPAC activities include Clinical Chemistry Division Committee (member, 1972-77), Commission on Toxicology (chair, 1972-81), Subcommittee on Nickel Toxicology (chair, 1976-82), Clinical Chemistry Division (president, 1981-85), and Subcommittee on Analytical Methods (chair, 1987-89).