Resources for the IFCC-IUPAC Coding System for Laboratory Investigations

The background for the IFCC-IUPAC coding system for laboratory investigations is described in the publications listed below.


Compendium of Terminology and Nomenclature of Properties in Clinical Laboratory Sciences: “The Silver Book” – Synopsis
Over the last 40 years much effort has been given to introduce and apply in clinical chemistry the rules and conventions on quantities and units recommended by international organizations such as BIPM, ISO and IUPAC. The series of documents and recommendations published for this purpose by IUPAC/C-QUCC and IFCC/C-QU (formerly IFCC/EPQU; from 1996-01-01 C-NPU) are not readily available, and some have been in need of updating and alignment with other documents. The Compendium harmonises them, and will facilitate access and updating. Besides the hard-copy edition, it will be accessible in electronic format on Internet, according to IUPAC rules: “Guidelines for web documents”. Translation into other languages, eg. French, Spanish and Japanese, is intended.
IUPAC: Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1995, 290 pp.


Glossary of Terms in quantities and units in clinical chemistry – Synopsis
From 1967 onwards, a number of documents prepared by the IUPAC/C-QUCC and IFCC/C-QU (from 1996-01-01 C-NPU), with input from many clinical laboratory scientists worldwide, and consistent with standards promulgated by authoritative international scientific organisations, have been published. Because of the importance of a consistent terminology in clinical chemistry and because these documents are often published in journals that may not be readily accessible, the C-NPU has prepared a glossary containing those terms considered of particular interest to the clinical chemistry and clinical laboratory science communities. The glossary has been compiled from definitions taken from published documents of the C-NPU. Also it contains a number of terms, and their definitions, considered relevant to the practice of clinical chemistry, taken from the official documents of other commissions of IUPAC and of international scientific organisations such as the International Organisation for Standardisation, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

IUPAC (Recommendation 1996): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1996; 68: 957-1000). IFCC (Recommendation 1995): Published in Biochim Clin 1995; 19: 471-502.


Properties and units in the clinical laboratory sciences – Synopsis

 


 

I. Syntax and semantic rules – Synopsis
This document is an updating of previous recommendations on the presentation of properties and their values in clinical laboratory sciences from IFCC, IUPAC and WHO. It forms part of the ongoing effort towards ‘standardisation’ of transmission of laboratory request and report across cultural/language domains while avoiding standardisation of the language used by clinicians or laboratory practitioners. Subsequent documents will list the kinds-of-property and the properties used in clinical laboratory sciences.

IUPAC (Recommendation 1995): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1995; 67: 1563-74. IFCC (Recommendation 1995): Published in Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995; 33: 627-36; Clin Chim Acta 1996; 245: S5-S21.


II. Kinds-of-property – Synopsis
The document circumscribes the concept ‘kind-of-property’ (property in a general sense) and lists the kinds-of-property mostly used in the clinical laboratory sciences.
The concepts are as defined in the “Compendium of terminology and nomenclature of properties in clinical laboratory sciences”, except for a few that are defined intuitively.
Each is given a unique code value and is expressed in different languages for use in the assembly of terms representing individual properties.

IUPAC (Recommendation 1996): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 1015-42. IFCC (Recommendation 1996), Published in Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1997; 35: 317-44


III. Elements (of properties) and their code values – Synopsis
The system of concepts for properties in the clinical laboratory sciences of the European Prestandard ENV 1614 has been applied in the code value strings presented in part IV, Properties and code values, of this series of documents.
The assumption has been made, that if the elements used in the coding strings each are intensionally defined and are combined according to the ENV 1614 syntax rules, then the properties represented by the code value strings are also intensionally defined.
For this reason, the code values selected for the elements are from international coding schemes that include definitions of concepts.
The set has been supplemented with code values prefixed by QU given by IFCC-IUPAC/C-NPU as need arises.
Major sources of code values of defined concepts are:

ATCC

American Type Culture Collection

CAS

Chemical Abstract Service

CCUG

Culture Collection, University of Göteborg

CIP

Collection de l’Institut Pasteur

EC

Enzyme Commission of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

ECRI

UMDNS: Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System TM. Product Categories Thesaurus 1996. Copyright 1995 by ECRI.

HUGO

The Human Genome Organisation
HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee

IAM

Institute of Applied Microbiology

INN

International Nonproprietary Names of Pharmaceutical Substances (WHO 1988)

ISBT

International Society of Blood Transfusion

JCM

Japan Collection of Microorganisms

MIM

Mendelian Inheritance in Man

MSH

Medical Subject Headings, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda

NCCLS

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards

NCTC

National Collection of Type Cultures

QU

Elements defined by IUPAC-IFCC/C-NPU

UMLS

Unified Medical Language System

WHO

World Health Organisation

IV. Properties and their code values – Synopsis The presentation of properties observed or measured in the clinical laboratory sciences and the adherent units have been thoroughly discussed for some decades. Recently a list of properties in the domain of thrombosis and haemostasis has been published.

Each of the entries on a property in the list is identified by a code value preceeded by a source code (NPU) for the coding scheme. Similar lists are prepared for other domains, f.ex. trace elements and clinical pharmacology and toxicology. The present list summarises the properties and units elaborated for various domains of the clinical laboratory sciences. IUPAC (Technical report 1997). Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 2583-91.


V. Properties and units in Thrombosis and Haemostasis – Synopsis
For historical reasons, the terms used in the nomenclature for properties in thrombosis and haemostasis differ according to ‘school’ of thought. This hampers communication. In collaboration, The Scientific and Standardization Committee of The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis and the Committee (Commission) of Quantities and Units (in Clinical Chemistry) (C-QU(CC); from 1996-01-01 C-NPU) of the IFCC-IUPAC have prepared a set of recommended systematic names for properties in that domain. For use in electronic transmission each property has been given a code value.

IUPAC (Recommendation 1996): Published in Pure Appl Chem, 1997; 69: 1043-79. ISTH (Recommendation 1994): Published in Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1994; 71: 375-94.
IFCC (Recommendation 1995): Published in Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995; 33: 637-660; Clin Chim Acta 1996; 245: S23-S28.


VI. Properties and units in IOC prohibited Drugs – Synopsis
The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of request and report on such substances to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources.
The document comprises a list of properties of drugs of abuse in biological fluids as defined by the International Olympic Committee Medical Code for use in electronic transmission systems. Systematic names are presented with a code value for each.

IUPAC (Recommendation 1996): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 1081-1136. IFCC (Recommendation 1996/97): Published in Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem1997; 35: 805-31. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 268: S5-73.


VIII. Properties and units in Clinical Microbiology – Synopsis
The document describes the use of the concept property and the presentation of results in clinical microbiology. Systematic names in clinical microbiology require the use of a nominal scale kind of property to describe taxonomy. For this purpose the kind of property ”taxon” is introduced. The document further lists properties commonly used in clinical microbiology. The document follows the IUPAC-IFCC systematic syntax and this creates a basis for integration of the format of clinical microbiology laboratory reports in the general clinical laboratory sciences laboratory reports format.

IUPAC (Technical report 1999): Published in Pure Appl Chem 2000; 72: 555-745
IFCC (Technical report 1999)
: Published in e-JIFCC 2000; 12-1.


IX. Properties and units in Trace elements – Synopsis
This document is the first recommendation on the presentation of trace elements and their values in clinical laboratory sciences from IFCC and IUPAC. It forms part of the ongoing effort to standardise requests and reporting of laboratory data for transmission across cultural and languistic domains, without attempting to standardise the language used by clinicians and laboratory practitioners.
Subsequent documents deal with syntax, kinds-of-property, and properties and units used in other areas of clinical laboratory sciences.

IUPAC (Technical report 1997): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 2593-606. IFCC (Technical report  1997: Published in Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1997; 35: 833-43. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 268: S75-89


X. Properties and units in General Clinical Chemistry – Synopsis
IUPAC (Technical report 1999): Published in Pure Appl Chem 2000; 72: 747-972
IFCC (Technical report 1999)
: Published in e-JIFCC2000; 12-1.


XI. Coding systems – Structure and guidelines – Synopsis
In ENV1614:1995 the system of concepts for properties in the clinical laboratory sciences has been elaborated and in part I of this series the syntax and semantic rules are presented.
The present document deals with the procedures for assembling the elements of a property into a string of code values representing the intensional definition of a property. This is done by use of semantic links that ensure the correct localisation of the elements according to the syntax rules.
Further some special features needed in extension to the general structure are presented.

IUPAC (Technical report 1997): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 2607-20


XII. Properties and units in Clinical pharmacology and toxicology – Synopsis
The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of requests and reports on properties for such substances in biological fluids to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources.
The document comprises a list of properties of drugs in biological fluids for use in electronic transmission systems. Systematic names are presented together with a code value for each.

IUPAC (Technical report 1999): Published in Pure Appl Chem 2000; 72: 479-552
IFCC (Technical report 1999)
: Published ine-JIFCC 2000; 12-1.


XIII. Properties and units in Reproduction and fertility – Synopsis
This document is the first recommendation on the presentation of properties in reproduction and fertility and their values in clinical laboratory sciences from The International Society of Andrology, IFCC and IUPAC. It forms part of the ongoing effort to standardise requests and reporting of laboratory data for transmission across cultural and languistic domains, without attempting to standardise the language used by clinicians and laboratory practitioners.

IUPAC (Technical report 1997): Published in Pure Appl Chem 1997; 69: 2621-28. IFCC (Technical report 1997): Published in Clin Chem Lab Med 1998; 36(1): 57-65.


 XVI. Properties and units in Clinical Allergology – Synopsis The subject field of clinical allergology deals with many hundred different allergens from all parts of the human environment and the number steadily increases. Not all of the allergens are strictly defined in chemical terms and procedures for detection of antibodies against the allergens in the human vary. This document deals with the presentation of request and report on such properties according to some international rules and the allocation of code values representing the concept delineated. The coding scheme thus prepared is imperfect and needs further elaboration as allergens become more well defined. It is a step toward harmonization, in particular as concerns the coding system applied. The net outcome is a coding scheme for use in electronic transmission. IUPAC (Technical report 1999): Published in Pure Appl Chem 2000; 72: 1067-1205 IFCC (Technical report 1999): Published ine-JIFCC 2000; 12-1.