1) Critical review of applications of CCC in analytical chemistry both organic and inorganic, in pharmaceutical industry (often unpublished) as well as in radiochemistry.
2) Review CCC theory, methodology and instrumentation and make recommendations on the standardisation taking into account its relative position between other extraction and chromatography processes.
The application of CCC in analytical chemistry has been investigated at a fundamental level at the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences for 16 years. Various applications of CCC to the concentration and separation of a number of elements in environmental and inorganic analysis (including the purification of chemical reagents) have been studied and a fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics is developing.
CCC is widely used as a method for the concentration, separation and purification of chemical and pharmaceutical substances at both analytical and process (production) scales based on their partition between two immiscible solvent phases. One liquid phase is held stationary in the force field of a coil planet centrifuge while the other is eluted through it as the mobile phase. Among its various advantages is the ability to achieve high-resolution extractions/separations with minimal solvent use.
The inspiration for this proposal arose during the first International conference on Countercurrent Chromatography (CCC2000) where scientists from the analytical chemistry and pharmaceutical industries came together. It was clear that the application of CCC in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in the production of drugs, can be a basis for developing various methods of analysis.
The aim of this proposal is to review the progress made by the pharmaceutical industry, radiochemistry, analytical and preparative scale inorganic separations and survey emerging technologies and applications based on CCC.
The first milestone was a workshop on CCC in Analytical Chemistry during the 2nd International Conference on CCC in Beijing, China, April 2002. The workshop was organized and chaired by B. Spivakov and I. Sutherland with more than 50 participants from 10 countries. Very active discussion was useful for the Task Group Members.
A working meeting of the team members (T. Maryutina, I.
Sutherland, A. Berthod) was held during the Third International Conference on Countercurrent Chromatography (CCC2004) in Tokyo (28 Aug-1 Sep 04). A draft is expected
to be completed in January 2005.
> Nov 2004 report update (pdf file – 11KB)
> May 2006 report update (pdf file – 12KB)
> Feb 2009 - Project completed – IUPAC Report published in Pure Appl. Chem., 2009, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 355-387