Pure Appl. Chem., 2005, Vol. 77, No. 11, pp. 1965-1983
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION
Nonspecific sensor arrays ("electronic tongue") for chemical analysis of liquids (IUPAC Technical Report)
Abstract: The history of the development of potentiometric sensors over the past century demonstrates progress in constructing single, discrete (i.e., separate, to distinguish from sensor arrays) ion sensors, which have been made as selective as possible. Only a few types reveal high selectivity. However, easy measurement procedure, with low cost and availability, give rise to the search for new ways for their successful application. The present document describes a new concept for application of potentiometric multisensor systems, viz., sensor arrays for solution analysis, and the performance of this new analytical tool - the "electronic tongue". The electronic tongue is a multisensor system, which consists of a number of low-selective sensors and uses advanced mathematical procedures for signal processing based on the pattern recognition (PARC) and/or multivariate analysis [artificial neural networks (ANNs), principal component analysis (PCA), etc.]. Definitions of the multisensor systems and their parameters are suggested. Results from the application of the electronic tongue, both for quantitative and qualitative analysis of different mineral water and wine samples, are presented and discussed.